Saturday, May 23, 2020

Christians And Social Justice - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 907 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2019/04/08 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Social Justice Essay Did you like this example? Only thing we have to fear is fear itself FDR in his inaugural speech in March 1933 was alerting the nation that fear was making things worse. Fear is such an incredible force, it has the power to bring people to their knees, paralyze some from moving at all, and make people run for safety due to some perceived threat to their well-being or way of life. Such is the power of fear that it can make grown men and women cower and seek to make borders around all that they hold dear. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Christians And Social Justice" essay for you Create order Unfortunately, this can especially be damaging when those who profess to have a relationship with Jesus Christ use fear as a means to justify violations of justice or to attack others within the Christian community. Fear often can pit us against those we profess to love. Fear can take normally rational people into the abyss of anxiety and make them utilize weapons they would generally not in order to avoid changing, to maintain comfort, and often makes situations worse by creating unneeded/unwarranted conflict. It is in a stance of fear where Evangelical Christians find themselves with the topic of social justice. So much so that as recent as September 2018 a group of prominent Evangelical Christian men authored and published a statement in order to take a stand against social justice. These men believe that social justice is corrupting the Gospel of Christ and is an attack on His church. They felt so strongly about this new threat to the church/gospel that they issued a 14 point statement to debunk social justice. As one of the writers, Tom Ascol, wrote in a September 4, 2018 blog post; we determined to make a public stand together in hopes of warning about the dangers we see in some of what is being promoted in the name of social justice. This public stand comes at an interesting time in history not only do we currently have a nationalistic, racist, and xenophobic president (he who must not be named) that was overwhelmingly voted for and continues to be supported by White evangelical Christians (80%), the rise of hate crimes and police brutality against people of color is rising at alarming numbers , and The Gospel Coalition held a huge MLK 50 celebration/conference where many evangelicals called out the church for supporting white supremacy and ignoring issues of race the month before the statement was released. For these men the time seemed ripe for a broad sweeping indictment against social justice. A combination of what seems like righteous indignation and overwhelming fear that Christians were being led away from fundamental Christianity that is mostly based on White theology caused these men to come up with this statement. Not to mention the rise among many evangelicals who are questioning issues of race especia lly in stances of police brutality, which I believe can traced back to the killing of Mike Brown and Ferguson. The statement reads like a cautionary tale where the church needs to be protected or else things will fall apart and the church will fall victim to secular culture. When describing what this final project was all about, this declaration stuck out to me Write about what pisses you off it made me laugh and exclaim; there isnt enough paper in the world for me to write about what pisses me off. Snark is a gift and it should never go to waste. As this assignments deadline looms, I find that the thing that has been pissing me off the most lately and most especially this first semester of grad school is evangelical Christianity. Over the past two years my place of employment has come under attack for making issues where none exist. Some individuals were completely roasted online by colleagues and students for bringing forth justice and race issues. One would think at a Christian higher education institution that these questions would be welcomed and openly engaged unfortunately no. The situation is so out of hand that using the term social justice is equivalent to swearing on campus. Some staff and faculty are so adamant that social justice is not a gospel issue that they openly bad mouth others who advocate for it. There is also the situation of my former church which I mentioned in my race workshop paper and how it was the impetus for me leaving that church. I have been wounded and deeply traumatized by the negative reaction to social justice, race, equality, and feminism so that when the statement was released on September 5, I was not surprised but it made revisit all the hurt/anger over the past two years. Im utterly disgusted and deeply saddened by this statement as it fails to acknowledge that many devout/sincere followers of Christ see justice work as an outpouring of love. So, that is why it pisses me off, as to why it is a justice issue this statement is a direct violation of the principles of Human Dignity, The Common Good, and Solidarity (virtue and principle). Within Christianity, statements like this are nothing new throughout history, Christians have come together to scrutinize and respond to perceived threats to the faith. These are designed to address cultural shifts, societal pressures on the church, and answer scripturally to these so called threats. Many are well intentioned and address real issues, though not all hit the mark correctly as they will create divisions that are not entirely necessary.

Monday, May 18, 2020

Physician Assisted Suicide Should Not Be Legal - 2017 Words

Justine Aguilar 16 May 2016 English 100 Melody Kowach Say No to Physician Assisted Suicide Has anyone ever heard of the term Assisted suicide? The term assisted suicide â€Å" is suicide committed with the aid of another person, who is usually a physician. It usually is called physician assisted suicide because a doctor is providing information on committing suicide with lethal doses of drugs (Assisted). There are many people with a terminal illness considering assisted suicide. Assisted Suicide is legal in five states which is Oregon, Vermont, Washington, California, and Montana. Oregon, Vermont, Washington, and California legalizes assisted suicide through a law. Montana is the only state that requires a court ruling for assisted suicide. Assisted suicide varies on a method in each state. It usually is prescribed by a doctor in the state where the patient is living. Assisted suicide has been active from 1997 up through 2016 .An interesting fact is Assisted suicide has failed more times then it has succeeded (Physician). Physician Ass istant Suicide should not be legal because of the requirements to perform it and the consequences of it In states that allow assisted suicide their are requirements that need to be followed. â€Å"According to ODDA, a psychologist or psychiatrist may be requested to make an evaluation of an individual’s competency to continue with the process of PAS† (Johnson 2015). This should be considered a requirement in the protocols in each state that allowsShow MoreRelatedShould Physician Assisted Suicide Be Legal?901 Words   |  4 PagesWhen society ponders over the idea of physician-assisted suicide, they most likely feel that the act itself would compare to murdering someone. Who really has the authority to say what is right or wrong when a loved one wants to end their life because of a terminal illness or a severe physical disability? Should Physician-assisted suicide be Legal in California to make it a euthanasia state like Oregon ? In the article titled â€Å"Nicest Law maker Touts Assisted Suicide,† by Clea Benson published The BakersfieldRead MorePhysician Assisted Suicide Should Be Legal1578 Words   |  7 Pagesmeasures. One of the alternative options is Physician-Assisted Suicide; defined as the voluntary termination of one’s own life by administration of a lethal substance with the direct or indirect assistance of a physician (â€Å"Physician-assisted†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ). In layman’s terms it means that a physician administers medications to the patients to use on their own terms, and it’s entirely up to the patient whether or not to ingest the medication. I know Physician-Assisted Suicide is a practical solution to terminally illRead MoreShould Physician-assisted Suicide Be Legal? 1473 Words   |  6 Pages Should physician-assisted suicide be legal? This debated subject has no right or wrong answer. Assisting someone in death has a felony murder conviction in some cases. There are a few different ways of bein g charged, but there are certain circumstances. There are many reasons why I am for it and of course, I have reasons against it. When you have a loved one in a vegetative state, does the family say yes or no to â€Å"pulling the plug?† Is it not the same as assisting a person in death? AnotherRead MorePhysician Assisted Suicide Should Be Legal1325 Words   |  6 PagesThe topic of physician-assisted suicide has become very controversial because of the ethical questions. The physical state of health of the patient, the patient’s personal life, and even the financial pressure of the patient are all factors to consider when contemplating whether or not to legalize this controversial cause of death. Physician-assisted suicide regarding medical ethics states that a physician cannot legally give any patient a lethal injection to end their life, but they can take theRead MoreShould Physician Assisted Suicide Be Legal?761 Words   |  4 Pages We Should be in Favor of P hysician-assisted Suicide In a momentous decision released February 6, 2015, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that Physician-assisted suicide will be legal in Canada within 12 months. This deci-sion has caused a myriad of controversy. Opponents of physician-assisted suicide argue that the constitution recognizes the sanctity of life and no one has the right to end the life of another person’s. Supporters, on the other hand, argue that patients who experience constantRead MorePhysician Assisted Suicide Should Be Legal935 Words   |  4 Pagesdiscusses the ethics of physician-assisted suicide. In the process of physician-assisted suicide, a doctor purposefully provides a terminally ill patient with the means to take their own life. This is often confused with active euthanasia; however, they are not the same thing. In euthanasia, the doctor administers the lethal drug to the patient, but in physician-assisted suicide, the patient must take the lethal drugs themselves. There is much debate over physician-assisted suicide today. Some peopleRead MoreShould Physician Assisted Suicide Be Legal?847 Words   |  4 PagesShould-Physician Assisted Suicide Be Legal In Every State When it comes to the topic of, should physician-assisted suicide be legal in every state, most of us will readily agree that it should be up to a terminally ill person to make that decision. Whereas some are convinced that it is inhumane, others maintain that it is a person’s decision to end their own life. I agree that physician-assisted suicide should be legal in every state because in most cases, people that are terminally ill should haveRead MorePhysician Assisted Suicide Should Be Legal1494 Words   |  6 PagesPhysician Assisted Suicide A tough issue on the rise in the United States is whether or not Physician Assisted Suicide (PAS) should be legal. Physician Assisted Suicide allows a physician to prescribe a lethal dose of medication to a patient to end their life. However, the patient has to take the drugs on their own. PAS would be only offered to those suffering from a terminal illness with less than six months to live. The way these patients go about treating and or living with a terminal illnessRead MorePhysician Assisted Suicide Should Be Legal1223 Words   |  5 Pagespractice of physician assisted suicide. This would allow terminally ill patients, many of whom have cancer, to make the difficult decision to end their lives peacefully. Doctors are able to simply write their patient a prescription, designed to end a person’s life in a non-painful way. Doctors and medical personnel have struggled with this topic, exploring the various consequences and benefits that come with making assisted suicide leg al. Currently, physician assisted suicide has been made legal acrossRead MoreShould Physician Assisted Suicide Be Legal? Essay1745 Words   |  7 PagesShould Physician Assisted Suicide Be Legal? Every day in the United States 1,500 people are diagnosed with a terminal illness. These people are given few options when determining if the wish to try treatment and if treatment does not work, how to deal with the end of their lives. (author unknown, â€Å"Cancer†) With this horrible future ahead of them many may wish to make amends before it’s too late, however, an increasing number of people are seeking an alternate solution. In states such as Oregon, Washington

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

United States Special Inspector For Afghanistan...

Every year, since the Taliban regime ended, foreign troop numbers within the country have increased dramatically. The greatest increase of troops was about twenty thousand additional troops added to the grand total of sixty-six thousand. With increased troops, the Taliban activity has also intensified. Mullah Saifur Reheman, a Taliban, began to rebuild his militia forces to support the anti- United States fighters. His forces amounted to over one thousand by the beginning of Operation Anaconda in March of 2002. Rebels against the revolution had planned to use the region as headquarters for launching guerrilla attacks (Shapiro). The United States used Kandahar International Airport as an operational base for taking and dispersing personnel and supplies. The number of U.S. troops who operated in the country grew to more than ten thousand against the al-Qaeda and the Taliban. Eventually, the United States and its allies drove the Taliban from power and curtailed al Qaeda’s effort s to plan and execute terrorist attacks at a high cost. The United States special inspector for Afghanistan reconstruction has reported that, when the security for aid workers is counted, the total amount of nonmilitary funds that Washington has appropriated since 2002 â€Å"is about one-hundred billion dollars (Emadi).† That is more than the United States has ever spent trying to rebuild a country. There is no need to spend that much money to have an impact, that money just needs to be spent well. InShow MoreRelated The War in Iraq Essay2488 Words   |  10 Pagesneighboring countries and opposing Arab factions within the country. It would even survive a war with the United States, but with constant accusations of possessing Weapons of Mass Destruction and bombings by the US and Britain through the ‘90s, Iraq would eventually fall. Not for the possession of WMDs, not for leading Terrorist actions against those who would invade, and not even for the United Nations sanc tioning it, because none of those things happened and Iraq was no enemy or threat to anyoneRead MoreHow Effective Is Terrorism Is For Achieving Its Political Objectives3701 Words   |  15 Pagesan abuse word in this expression (Rajiv, D 2013). This term of abuse has been on the world stage entwined with a complexity of unfinished definition. It has shifted the focus of state governments around the world to its national security department for expansion and development where the Middle East countries, United States including Australia have all been the victims. Terrorism has become a key organising principal for domestic and international politics shaped by developed organisations and tacticsRead MoreNational Security Outline Essay40741 Words   |  163 PagesCHAPTER 3: Development of the International Law of Conflict Management 5 CHAPTER 4: The Use of Force in International Relations: Norms Concerning the Initiation of Coercion (JNM) 7 CHAPTER 5: Institutional Modes of Conflict Management 17 The United Nations System 17 Proposals for Strengthening Management Institutional Modes of Conduct 23 CHAPTER 6: The Laws of War and Neutrality 24 CHAPTER 7: War Crimes and Nuremberg Principle 28 CHAPTER 12: Nuclear Weapons: Deployment, Targeting andRead MoreThe Hawala Extortion Method 18441 Words   |  74 Pagesinternational money laundering activities that spread far beyond the region. Hawala is illegal in many countries. However, Islamic and Western banks all over the world, and even central banks, make use of the system. For instance, in May and June 2001 the State Bank of Pakistan was said to have turned to hawala shops in Islamabad to buy dollars in order to support the own currency. Even top-ranking Western corporations turn to hawaladers for transactions to regions without a modern western-style banking systemRead MoreOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pagesstored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without either the prior written permission of the publisher or a licence permitting restricted copying in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, Saffron House, 6-10 Kirby Street, London EC1N 8TS. All trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners. The use of any trademark in this text does not vest in the author or publisher

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Prohibition Of The Usa Prohibition - 2994 Words

Prohibition in the USA Prohibition was introduced to the United States of America on the 16th of January 1920 with the hope of a pure nation that was not under the influence of alcohol. Prohibition was the legal prohibiting of the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages, which did not include the consuming of alcohol as you could still keep alcohol that was made or bought before 16th of January 1920. As the alcohol consumption rose substantially before the 1920s, it spurred the temperance movements in forcing this law of prohibition into parliament. Prohibition was then put into effect with the eighteen amendment of the constitution by Andrew J Volstead known as the Volstead act. This law was created in the hope of reducing the consumption of alcohol, but in actual fact it lead to; organised crime, bootlegging, gangsters, illegal smuggling, speakeasies and moonshines which all encouraged the consumption illegal liquor. This law also had many effects on the society such as the economy and the deaths rel ated to alcoholic poisoning. Still today there is a debate on whether it was a moral noble action or a failure, but would America have been better off not having a national prohibition? Before prohibition Increase in alcohol filled society and according to prohibitionists Americas only highlight of life was to get drunk. Between 1900 and 1913, Americans began to drink more and more, beer production jumped form 4.6 billion litres to 7.6 billion litres and the volume of taxShow MoreRelatedProhibition in Usa 1900-19301027 Words   |  5 PagesProhibition in USA in the 1900’s The prohibition was brought on by the strong temperance movement happening in America in the early 1900’s. These groups were devout Christians who vowed to be sober as they saw the affect alcohol had on families. But the members of this movement campaigned for everyone to give up alcohol. The arguments of the Temperance groups were so strong that they eventually convinced state governments to prohibit the sale and produce of alcohol in their state. Politicians backedRead MoreEssay about Prohibition in the USA in 19191038 Words   |  5 PagesProhibition in the USA in 1919 Prohibition was introduced in 1919; however it is impossible to find one simple reason for why it was introduced. It was not a new idea as the movement had already begun in 1830. By 1914 over half of Americas states were dry. At one minute past midnight on January 16th 1920 the law against the sale and transportation of alcohol in America became law; however in 1917 the law had been passed by congress due to the eighteenth amendmentRead MoreHow did the Prohibition Change the United States of America (USA)? And why was it a failure?1490 Words   |  6 PagesThe word Prohibition as stated in the World Book encyclopaedia refers to laws that are designed to prevent the drinking of alcoholic beverages. The enforcement of the Volstead Act in the United States of America (USA) saw the nationwide beginning of the prohibition on the 16th of January 1920. The Prohibition brought about a change in attitude for the people of the United States (USA). It caused an extreme rise in crime; encouraging everyday people to break the law and increased the amount ofRead MoreEssay about The History of Prohibition975 Words   |  4 PagesThe History of Prohibition Source A is aptly named â€Å"Slaves of the saloon†. It shows a man handing over what we guess is his weekly wages to the owner of a saloon – we guess by the men drinking in the background that he is using it to buy alcohol. The source also depicts a woman and her children sitting around a table with no food. We can guess fairly easily that this is the man in the saloon’s family; there is a bill on the floor hinting at lack of money for necessitiesRead More Prohobition Essays1189 Words   |  5 PagesPROHIBITION In all probability, no one thing gave more character to the era known as the ‘Roaring 20s’, than what was called ‘the long dry spell’ (a.k.a. Prohibition). Prohibition was the result, of the longstanding efforts, by largely Protestant religious groups, who had preached temperance since the early colonial period. What had been known as the temperance movement came to be a drive for all out prohibition right about the turn of the century. From about 1900-1904 there was a dramaticRead MoreThe Consequences of Prohibition Essay1493 Words   |  6 Pagesshort introduction A lot of things happened in 1920 Ââ€" USA was one of the victors in the first World War, and had a good period. Soon that was changed and USA suffered from many things, the great crash, prohibition and gang wars. But not only bad things happened Ââ€" there was also the new deal, new cultures, new poets and writers. The thing i want to write about is prohibition, that was a really big deal Ââ€" lots of books have beenRead MoreIs the Prohibition of Drugs Useful or Not? Essay1729 Words   |  7 Pagesthe twentieth century, people in many countries become aware of drug prohibition. In fact, every country in the world has a form of drugs prohibition. However, national drug prohibition started in 1920s in the United States as a subgroup of national alcohol prohibition. In 1930 the congress of United States separated drugs from the alcohol prohibition law and created a new federal drug prohibition agency (Levine, 2002). Prohibition may be defined as the set of policies which ban all production, distributionRead More`` The Epic Of America `` By James Truslow Adams1019 Words   |  5 Pagesgangsters like Al Capone, . â€Å"America is a society of criminals might be more humanly interesting and morally satisfying than a society of empty routines irresponsibly powerful organization, widespread corruption and meaningless violence† Immigration in USA in 20th century. Many families came to America is search of a better life and looking for a better future for themselves and their children. In 20th century, a million new immigrants arrived to America . Families have brought in their own cultureRead MoreWhy was Prohibition such a controversial issue during the 1920’s1369 Words   |  6 Pages Why was Prohibition such a controversial issue during the 1920’s? Prohibition was the banning of the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages. The power to ban the production, export, import, transportation or sale of alcoholic beverages was given by the 18th Amendment, 1917. This was gradually adopted by state governments across America and was followed up in 1919 by the Volstead Act that defined intoxicating liquor as a drink containing 0.5% of alcohol and prescribedRead MoreThe Consequences of Prohibition Essay580 Words   |  3 PagesThe Consequences of Prohibition On the midnight of 28th October 1919, importing, exporting, transporting, selling and manufacturing of intoxicating liquor came to a halt in America. Possessing substances above the 0.5% alcohol limit was illegal. This was Prohibition. This Eighteenth Amendment was meant to have reduced the consumption level, consequently to have reduced death rates, poverty and principally crime, in the USA. Yet this had quite the opposite effect. The

An Interview with the Elderly Free Essays

Gillian Howard was only 7 when the Second World War started; it was a chain of events that didn’t just wreck her childhood but many others. The observer got the chance to interview her as part of our elderly season. I came into the warm living room for this interview and my surrounding are of ornaments and glass statues. We will write a custom essay sample on An Interview with the Elderly or any similar topic only for you Order Now This is because my grandmother, Gillian, is an antique collector, so to start this interview I nuzzle myself into the infamous black leather sofa ready for the interview. My grandmother entered, I immediately stand up for this is how you treat the elder generation, with respect. I greet her and I sit back down ready to question her. I firstly ask her to just say a few interesting points that are important. She says she was born 1932 so was only 7 when the war started; Gillian lived in London at the time. Gillian still lives in London today and that is where we are now. When the blitz started in 1941 Gillian was evacuated from London and went on a train to Bristol. After that brief summary I proceed to ask her of when she felt most sad. Naturally it was when she   was separated from her parents and evacuated. She was crying and a group of soldiers came up to her and comforted her they were at the station too and were on the train to Bristol to go to the port to go onto a battleship. They sang to her the wartime songs all the way from London to Bristol she learnt them all. â€Å"But there is another event that really was sad and it just shows how the war tears families to shreds,† she said. I ask what this event is; she says â€Å"It was of course when my brother died in world war two, you see he was torpedoed by a German U-boat 4 people survived. He was one of them and he was on a chunk of metal torn away form the ship. After 4 days without food in the scorching heat of Africa the U-Boat surfaced and left them there they took photographs and used them as propaganda saying they were actually good people for they had rescued 4 dying men. 3 days later my brother died and 1 day later the rest of the crew were rescued he was just one day to short.† It is a story I have heard many times before, but it still makes me feel awfully sorry for my grandmother and her family. I then ask what happened when she arrived at Bristol. She says the she and her other brother were to be taken to a boarding school. But wasn’t as easy as it seemed for it was an only boys boarding school. Gillian got up to much mischief â€Å"in one event there was a sudden uproar of mice in the school, every single pupil had one and we hid them underneath the fold up old fashioned desks.† In another event Gillian describes the useless French teacher. She explains in this episode of how pathetic the teacher was and how all the children decided to trick her. She recalls the event, â€Å"You see the week before we had tricked another teacher by putting thin string all around the corridor and it tripped her up. All the teachers were on red alert so before class I went outside the classroom of the French teacher she was marking homework in the room and I pretended to tie up all these pieces of string outside. So we went into the lesson that is our class and pretended to jump over the strings. So when the teacher left the classroom she was crawling over the floor, she thought there was string. If we had cameras back then that would be the time to use it!† I ask her if she ever saw the bombing. She then says that they only stayed at Bristol for one day before they were whisked away to the countryside. But in that night she saw the bombing. She says â€Å"In the night I was with my brother it was the most terrifying thing and all you could hear was the screeching of the bombs and huge explosions.† I ask, â€Å"When the war was over was there a huge sense of relief.† â€Å"When the war ended everybody was so cheerful I was in London on victory day but before this whole experience I was 7 now I was 13 a whole chunk of my childhood was torn out,† says Gillian. So were many other children’s childhood I think to myself. â€Å"So after that I grew up in London and I met your grandfather Theo, at the age of 22, Theo was 29. So many people got married young in those days,† says Gillian. Gillian and Theo now live in a large Victorian, house in Chelsea London. I ask if they both go out much. â€Å"I go out with our dog Bosie on a walk every day to keep him healthy,† she explains. Bosie is the puppy born in august. He is very lively and is active so they go on a walk every day. â€Å"Do you have any hobbies?† I ask. She says that she collects antiques and has a very large collection of jewellery. Whenever we visit her she always shows my sisters her latest addition to the collection. At 76 Gillian still doesn’t have the same athletic ability she used to have but is still very fit for her age. When we go to the park she will be joining in with the football. I therefore sum up this interview part of are elderly season with the same message as other articles of the elderly season week. They are elderly people must have respect they have come from a completely different world compared to us and therefore needed to be treated like that. The elderly are not boring, slow, dull people as depicted in stereotypical pictures they are full of years of wisdom and can tell you lots of good stories. Don’t fall for what those stereotypical pictures say†¦ THINK! How to cite An Interview with the Elderly, Papers

Strategic Managements

Question: Writea strategic change management report of Nestle Company. Answer: 1.0 Introductions 1.1 Authorization and Purpose The purpose of this assignment is to develop a strategic change management report of Nestle Company. The report will apply relevant theoretical theories to explain different strategies taken by Nestle to grow as a world class organization worldwide. It will describe in detail the various components of strategic management such as industry analysis by PEST and Porters five force tool, cultural and leadership influences, a strategic process taken by the organization to develop its product and services, the organization structure and how they manage change. It will also highlight the strategic innovation initiative, corporate level strategy, and business level strategy. Therefore, the assignment will be a summary about Nestl's external and internal business environment. It will be useful study for new entrants venturing into food and business industry and starting their own line of products. 1.2 Limitation Though the focus of this assignment is mostly on Nestle company, some information will be given for general organizations too where there are similar ways of strategic management. 1.3 Scope This detailed report has immense scope for management student and those with an interest in marketing to understand the dynamic of work in a top organization like Nestle. It will help them get an understanding about how companies put efforts to gain a competitive advantage in the market despite the presence of innumerous competitors. 2.0 Organization name and background 2.1 History The foundation of Nestle was laid in 1905 by the merger of Anglo-Swiss Milk Company, and it was established in 1866 by George Page and Charles Page. The company has grown extensively since First and Second World War by expanding its offerings from condensed milk to infant formula products. Nestle is listed in Six Swiss Exchange, and it is a part of Swiss Market Index (Cardello and Wolfson 2014). 2.2 Size Nestle is one of the largest Swiss transnational food and beverage company in the world according to revenues earned. It has a large variety of products ranging from baby food, breakfast items, cereals, confectionery, dairy products, frozen food and many other snacks. Many famous brands of Nestle like Kit Kat, Maggi, Nespresso, Nescafe and many others has annual sales of more than one billion. According to most admired company list of Fortune 500 in 2015, Nestle Company was now ranked in 38the position. Nestle company has more than 450 factories operating in about 200 countries worldwide, and it has given employment to more than 4 lakh people. It is also the principal shareholder of the leading cosmetic brand, L'Oreal (Anderson 2014). 2.3 Location It is headquartered in Vevey, Vaud, Switzerland. It is the leading nutrition, health and wellness Company. They are now celebrating 150 years of Good Food, Good life. The Company has established its branch in principal countries of the world. 3.0 Industry context 3.1 Pest analysis Pest analysis is strategic management tool used by a company to identify threat and opportunities in business. It is an external analysis of company when doing marketing research giving detail about political, economic, social and technological factors about Company (Modi 2013). The following are the analysis of Nestle Company: Political- Nestle has made necessary changes to enhance their product and through their range of food products their focus is to create a healthier population. Nestle Company supports Government's effort to promote healthier diet and lifestyles for people globally. Through the introduction of healthier food option, they want to remove disease like obesity, diabetes, etc (Petrukevi ius and Granskas 2014). Economic- Nestle has excelled economically as it has developed its own brand reputation and it is renowned as fast moving sector in the world. It is the major job provider and has given employment opportunity to many people. They are also economic earning source for the local outlet. Thus, they have promoted economic and social responsibility of the community. They have provided the economy with a supply of quality of food product and sustained the growth of the economy. They have also brought improvement in agricultural production and economic status of farmers (Manzaneque Corona 2014). Social: Nestle has tried to decrease carbon emission from their products and minimized water withdrawal in the last decade. Their main aim is to improve a quality of consumers lives by offering healthier food and beverage choices. Their uniqueness lies in the fact that through their product they have created value both for shareholders and society. Shared value is achieved when they maintain their own business principles as well as protect the environment during the process (Pfitzer et al., 2013). Technology: Before launching any product, Nestle undergoes strict quality check and RD process. They constantly renovate their product using RD expertise. They have excelled in technological aspects by keeping the highly developed manufacturing unit; maintain best RD capability in food and nutrition and international quality and safety standards (Babatunde and Adebisi 2012). 3.2 Five force analysis Porters five force model will discuss the uniqueness and productivity of Nestle. These are as follows: The threat of new entrants: Food processing is a vast sector, so there is major chance of new companies entering the market and creating their own brand image. Nestle has faced stiff competition due to new entrants in the market, but still they have retained their market share. Many new entrants enter the market every year, but Nestle has been a leader in food market for centuries. Nestle has maintained its consistency, and so there is the negligible threat of new entrants for them (Trieloff and Buys 2013). The threat of substitute goods: Availability of substitute is higher in product marketing, and it leads to heightened competition in food industry sector. To survive this threat, Nestle has to renovate its product regularly to retain their market share. Some unique innovation strategy taken by Nestle includes introducing consciousness and wellness factor in its entire product. Such initiative will help Nestle to stay ahead of other substitutes (Babatunde and Adebisi 2012). Bargaining power of suppliers: As Nestle has offered quality in all its food products, it has helped them build the strong relation with their suppliers. This is possible only because of massive buying power and continuous quality improvement. Bargaining power of consumers: This is a dominant factor to judge any companies position in the market. Despite the availability of substitute products, Nestle has offered influential choices in its products to make it successful among its users. Nestle understands the importance of satisfying customers which become evident by their health and wellness programs for the new product offering (Horn et al. 2015). Competitive rivalry: Healthy competition is beneficial for the company in the long run. Though Nestle is a leading food processing company, still they have major rivals like Kraft Foods and Groupe Danone. Every company spends a lot on marketing campaigns. This is advantageous for customers as they continuously get improved product quality and better choices (Keegan and Campus 2016). 3.3 Industry life cycle Nestls focus is not only on healthier and tastier food, but also in improving environment impacts of their product from manufacturing level to customer reach. They have used Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to understand the environmental value of their product throughout the production chain. LCA seeks to preserve water, use natural resource efficiently, reducing air pollution and waste, conserving biodiversity and adapting to climate change. A few example of LCA in Nestls product includes the following: They have introduced ready to feed plastic bottle for infants in Germany instead of glass bottles. This has helped to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and also improved air quality. The introduction of Nescafe refill pack in Italy instead of glass jar has contributed to reducing resource consumption and GHG emission (Adams et al. 2015). 4.0Organizational Context 4.1 Leadership influence Nestle has grown from a small town operating company to world leading food brand. They have achieved this through exceptional leadership principles which expect every employee to work according to Nestls culture and values. They are committed to the concept of shared value. They demand continuous improvement in each employee's performance so that companies performance gets enhanced. They have a code of business and conduct in which there are non-negotiable standards of employee behavior in key areas. Their extraordinary leadership style has led them to success, develop as a team, bring good results and compete and connect with the external environment. All these factors have lead to the creation of shared value for both shareholders as well as society (Nestle 2013). 4.2 cultural analysis Nestle beliefs, customs, and practices have benefited society in many ways. One example is the Cocoa Plan launched by Nestle. It was introduced to facilitate African cocoa farmers and took advantage of increasing market price by increasing their productivity. It had a very positive impact on society, and it minimized problems like child labor and lack of access to health and education. For example educating farmers on farming methods not only improved cocoa productivity but also made them aware of disease and prevention methods (Mbugua 2012). 5.0 Strategy formation 5.1 Strategy process Nestls objectives are to be renowned as leading company in health, nutrition and wellness. Their slogan Good Food, Good Life' sums up their targets. This strategy formulation process takes place after analysis of current situation in the world and then identifying future objectives and missions for the company. Once the vision is defined, ones can formulate a detailed strategy. For example, Nestle objectives are clear in the above statement, so to achieve that they will plan and implement various strategies in alignment with their mission (Areal et al. 2016). 5.2 Intended strategies Nestle believes that trust is built over a long period by delivering on quality and promise. Their corporate ambition is Good Food Good Life and for this their intentions is to create alignment with their employees with their strategic priorities, so that it accelerates chances of fulfillment of objectives. They want from their people exceptional performance and the inspiration to build for the future wellness of the company. They seek to achieve their goal through short-term entrepreneurial action and leadership skill. They want to build trust by satisfying the expectation of consumers, shareholders, and community. They believe in creating shared value. For better performance in the future, they are investing a lot in future to sustain their people, technology, brand and R D. So they intend to meet today's need without compromising on future needs and create a great return for their shareholders (FitzRoy et al. 2012). 5.3 Emergent strategies Keeping in line with their objectives, their emergent strategy is to renovate their food and beverage portfolio consistently. The researcher of Nestle wants to explore nutritional therapy to maintain the health of the community. Their current strategy is to overcome all the challenges to global nutrition, health, and wellness and build an influential partnership with policymakers, stakeholders and leaders to have a positive impact on society. Through their product, they empower informed the decision regarding their food choices. They have also proposed a science based education programme "Start Healthy and Stay Healthy". Through this, they intend to educate parent about the nutritional needs required for a child during first 1000 days of life. There is Nestle Healthy Kids Programme to promote a healthy lifestyle in children through nutrition teaching and physical activity. They proposed to reduce an amount of salt, sugar, and saturated fats in their product as well as maintain consum er preference. For the better informed decision of consumers, they have improved labeling and printing guidelines daily amount in their product. Their strategic roadmap guides the organization forward towards their goals and gains competitive advantage in the process (Schlegelmilch 2016). 6.0 Strategic change 6.1 Business model There are eight elements of business models. These are as follows: Value proposition: Nestle has been creating value for its customers for many years. Due to the positive image and value creation, customers always rely on the products of Nestle. Revenue model: Nestle has their own revenue model, and they are generating enough revenue to pay back returns to investors by selling a different range of food products. Market opportunity: the Different market has a different market niche. As Nestle is dealing with daily consumed food products, they have the excellent market opportunity. Competitive environment: Nestle company has recognition worldwide, so competitors are trying to look for its weak points. Example Coca Cola is an active competitor as they had launched Aquafina against Nestle Water (Matzler et al. 2013). Competitive advantage: As Nestle has maintained its brand value since many years, they enjoy a competitive edge over other customers. They have constantly evolved and adapted to changes in the world market. Their core business principles represent fairness, honesty and concern for people. Market Strategy: As mentioned above, Nestles market strategy is focused on maintaining health wellness and nutrition through their product. They have guaranteed quality through their product and maintained safety of consumers as well as their employees. They have focused on building good relationship both with consumers as well as shareholders. They have plan for implementation of international code of marketing for breast milk substitutes. Organizational development: Through its marketing strategies, Nestle has efficiently maintained their reputation and developed the organization. Team Management Through influential leadership, Nestle has ensured that their employee works according to their values and principles and enhance their performance (Amit and Zott 2012). 6.2 Organization Structure Managing directors come in the top level of the organization structure of Nestle. Next level consists of the following: Marketing and sales manager ( National Sales Manager and goods manager work under them) Technical Manager- (plant manager and corporate manager) Supply chain manager (dealing with distribution service, operation and demand and supply planning). Finance Control Manager Corporate HR Manager Corporate quality assurance manager (Rezaeegiglo et al. 2014). 6.3 Magnitude of change Nestle operates in more than 100 countries, and it has to deal with diversity challenges in the international marketing plan. The result was that each business unit was not linked to a computer system from its headquarter. So it could not find ways to track performance at each level. This ineffective information system meant Nestle Company could dominate over its buying power and bargain with suppliers for better deals. So the operating cost was high (Harmon 2014). 6.4 Pace of change In response to the issue, Nestle management is planning to launch a standardized information system through which they could connect to 500 units worldwide. To facilitate this change quickly, they have involved top business executives and information system professionals for the project. The pace of change suffered initially due to employee resistance as they were not communicated about the need to change. Once this problem was addressed, the change was addressed quickly (Adams et al. 2015). 7.0 Strategic Innovation 7.1 Strategizing The vice president of Innovative Partnership at Nestle, Helmut Traitler has promoted open innovation in the company in the form of reorienting strategies with the view of sharing is winning'. Open innovation occurs when any company is ready for intellectual and technological openness, and innovative ideas move across the organization. In Nestle Company, innovation was brought only in packaging, and it mostly depended on its internal RD for innovative plans. But now they are strategizing on removing the past trend and expand its global partnership with the slogan sharing is winning. Their target is to achieve additional $5 billion growth each year. During economic crisis also, they also want to spend more than 2 billion dollars on RD every year (Deschamps and Nelson 2014). 7.2 Entrepreneuring Active entrepreneurial action drives Nestle's strategic innovation. Persons like Helmut Traitler have played a role in shifting their ideas to embrace open innovation. An entrepreneur in organization researched on opportunities and source of innovation and identified a level of change needed in the organization. They have the expertise to apply correct principles successful innovation (Rhaume and Gardoni 2016). 7.3 Venturing Venturing is related to what type of changes any entrepreneur want in the organization and how they go about to fulfill those ventures. At Nestle, the entrepreneurs stressed on achieving results and success as fast as possible. Traitler emphasized the need of developing exceptional internal RD facility as they share their resources with external partners during project development. The chance of failure or success depends on authenticity of organization (Martinez 2013) 7.4 Alignment The enormous size of Nestle is both an advantage and hurdle for the company to implement the innovative strategy. The company has to be aligned to its principles and values to meet its strategic objectives. Since there are about more than 2.5 lakh employees at Nestle, knowing each of them might be a problem. Companies often suffer due to miscommunication, but leaders can play a role in overcoming this issue (Bigliardi and Galati 2013). 8.0 Missioning and visioning 8.1 Purpose Nestle want to truly represent their slogan of Good Food, Good Life. They want to be renowned as a company promoting health, nutrition and wellness through their products. Their focus is on satisfying their customers by giving best of products range. Their purpose is to develop product keeping in mind customers preference and taste. They also want to promote environmental well-being by reducing carbon gas and other emissions from their product (Moura et al. 2015). 8.2 Beliefs Their belief is that they have given the quality product to their consumers for many years, and so they can retain the trust of customers if they consistently maintain their brand image. They intend to serve their customers better by offering a new range of products and improve existing products. The logo of Nestle is very apt according to its slogans. Henri Nestle chose the logo of a birds nest with a mother feeding her young baby (Gandini et al. 2014). 8.3 Values The values and beliefs of Nestle can be understood by its logo of a mother feeding a young bird. Therefore, the logo represents the core value of Nestle, which are care, nutrition, family values, promoting healthy growth, safety, and comfort. Therefore, they are committed to their values by providing quality and nutrition in their food products. Nestle has maintained its commitment toward health and wellness throughout the years and helped consumers to live longer and productive life irrespective of age, gender or socio-economic status. Three essential ingredient of their success includes their employees, their developmental strategies, and commitment to quality. Their dedicated employees are their source of assets and strength, and they give them continuous professional development (Shankar and Perumal 2014). 8.4 SMART objectives Nestles major goal was to be recognized as a world leader in nutrition, health, and wellness. They wanted to be trusted by its stakeholders and excel in their financial performance in the food processing industry. Therefore above facts suggest that Nestle is very specific about its priorities of creating shared values for both shareholders and the community. They also want to implement these objectives after compliance with culture, values, and principles of Nestle. This will help them to develop a sufficient and sustainable plan (Ng and Dunford 2013). Their goal is very specific, and it can be measured by comparing the annual revenue of Nestle with other companies every year. They feel that their objectives are achievable as they have significant resources in the form of 2,80,000 employees worldwide and they have maintained their reputation in nutrition industry till now. The times needed to achieve any strategy depend on different plans". For example "The Nescafe Plan" aim was to complete the project by 2020. It is a global initiative by Nestle for promoting responsible farming, production, and consumption of coffee. They want to meet increasing demand for coffee, but they may face challenges like the low yield of coffee, fluctuating prices, coffee farming being challenged by alternative crops and stiff competition for raw materials (Luna-Reyes et al., 2016). Their plan will help in responsible farming in four ways: Training: Nestle wants to train farmers on better farming techniques and giving proper guidelines. Since the inception of the Plan in 2010, till now they have trained about two lakh farmers. Connecting with farmers: Nestle wants to collect green coffee locally and improve it at the farm level. Connecting with farmers, they want to maintain sustainability standard of coffee. This initiative helped them produce 1,80,000 tonnes of coffee by 2013. They also want to supply coffee in compliance with Sustainable Agricultural Network Principles by 2020. Maintaining future of coffee farms: Nestle has invested in the improvement of coffee trees through RD centers in France. The intention behind this is to give the farmers the feeling that coffee growing is an attractive means of earning livelihood (Bee et al. 2015). 9.0 Business level strategy 9.1 Product Nestles business level strategy is guided by the company's principles and values. They have constantly renovated their products and maintained a balance between it supply and product lines. They never compromise on quality to achieve short-term objectives. They strive to give the best and unique food products to its consumers. Their aim is to drive their business based on human values and health. Through their scope of operations in different countries, they want to commit to health and well-being of people. They have differentiation strategy to minimize the complexity of supply chain. Nestle now has the exclusive range of about 2000 brands. All the brands are supplied according to the target market. The range of products includes coffee, water, infant foods, cereals, frozen foods, beverages, confectionery, seasonings and many other things. Some important brands like Nestle Nuggets, Nestle corn flakes, Acti-V, Aqua-mineral, Cerelac, Neslac, etc (Hrebiniak 2013). 9.2 Value chain Nestle has developed their business level strategy in a span of 140 years. Nestle first successful product was infant cereal Farine Lactee'. Since then they have built their business with the belief to attain success in the long-term. They want to follow the legal requirement in the food industry and maintain sustainable activity for society. Therefore, they want not just value for their money, but they also want to create significant value for the community. They call this intention as creating shared value. They ensure that all employees follow update version of Corporate Business Principles, and they provide training to improve consumer's adaptability to the principles. There might be comprehensive modular training. As Nestle is operating in many countries worldwide, they ensure that they market their product according to local legislation and cultural practices of selected country. The features of their value chain include: Promoting nutrition, health, and wellness through their products. Nestle give assurance of quality and product safety throughout their world by maintaining a high standard of product. They have efficiently communicated with consumers to provide them with the right to informed choices in their product. Accurate labeling and nutritional information provide users to make their own healthy choices. They have maintained good human rights and labor practices by supporting United Nations Global Compact principles. Nestles success is dependent on their influence leadership ad skillful workers. There is a good range of respect and dignity between them. They appoint competent people and provide equal opportunities for development of employees skills They promote safety and health at work by giving a minimum chance of an accident at production unit. They also commit to sustainable business practices and utilize natural resources efficiently (Bee et al. 2015). 9.3 Resources Proper utilization of the resource is vital for the success of one's business. Any organization has two types of resource-one is tangible, and other is intangible. Tangible assets are company's visible assets, and intangible resources are companies definite asset accumulated through their history. Any competitors can identify tangible resource of other, but they cannot track intangible assets of competitors in the market. For example, one cannot imitate particular organization's financial, technological, physical and organizational assets. Conventional intangible assets include target consumers, innovation in company and reputation or brand image. Nestle has an enormous financial resource regarding total revenue generated, operating income, profit and total assets. Its unique organization resource includes their governing body of stakeholders, chairperson and directors of the company, its manufacturing unit worldwide and exclusive product technology centers. It physical resources are its variety of products such as baby food, health care nutrition, confectionery, water, pharmaceuticals, etc. More than three lakh employees of Nestle are its valuable intangible resource. It has other innovative resources in the form of world class science and technological resource to build its unique range of excellent healthy product. Reputational resource means it efforts by consumers to meet customers demands and expense of research activity (Nestle 2016). 10.0 Corporate-Level Strategy: 10.1 Vertical and Horizontal Integration Depending on much analysis, the conclusion is that the growth of Nestle came in the direction of Horizontal Integration. The reason why the growth of Nestle is termed as horizontal is because of its expansion in the food industry by merging with the well knew food processing industry referred to as the Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk. This merger was very helpful for Nestle as it helped in the expansion of their products and made many resources available to this company. The horizontal integration extended to other countries also such as Spain, U.S, and Germany. Initially, the growth expanded internally within the organization, however, later it spread to the whole of Brazil. The company merged with Maggi. This merger was an indication that the corporation shall soon grow more within the food industry (Sanchez Rodrigues et al. 2015). 10.2 Diversification The diversification of Nestle started at the beginning of the 20th century. In the year 1904, the introduction of chocolate rights gave rise to new products under the Peter and Nestle brands. Like the competitors, Nestle struggled to boost sales in the European Market. It is a rumor that Nestle agreed to pay 500 million pounds to acquire Prometheus Laboratories. This is not the first acquisition of Nestle. Nestle has acquired many companies that were regarded as a leader in health science nutrition. It was Nestl's aim to become a leader in the coffee, baby food, and powdered milk products. Hence, Nestle focuses on increasing the strategic growth of the company. Health care markets are expected to grow rapidly than other food market products. Developing nations have people that are old. Hence, such kind of consumers is prepared to spend a considerable amount of money in health and nutrition. The profit margins of health care markets are also very high as compared to food products. The reason behind this is that people have become more careful about their health than any other thing, and that is why the pharmaceutical industry has become very popular (Kang 2013). 10.3 Strategic Business Units Since the foundation of Nestle in the year 1866, it has grown as the worlds largest market food company. This is an indication that shows that the strategic market of Nestle is already very strong. Nestle is organized into seven different global strategic units and engages in the overall strategic business development. Equivalent to this structure, Nestle is organized into five major geographical zones such as America and Europe. The regional development of Nestle is proof that it has an excellent strategic business program that is responsible for the overall development of the strategic business units of Nestle. However, as a universal company, Nestle faces many challenges and problems. The challenges may vary from environmental, social and economic issues. However, Nestle has the responsibility of operating decisions in many local units. This means that Nestle has a certain degree of independence relating to price distribution and marketing (Appiah-Adu and Amoako 2016). 11.0 Conclusion The whole report summarizes the strategic management process of Nestle Company. It has given valuable insights into what factors have contributed to the success of Nestle as the global brand. It has given the idea of how companies can build its reputation globally and also sustain it despite the presence of various competitors in the market. Through the industrial analysis of Nestle, we can get an idea about factors that influence its business and how they have overcome hurdles in their business. It has analyzed how different kinds of threats faced by Nestle in its history of marketing. The report has given information about influential leadership style and strategies taken by leaders to develop employees and enhance their product quality. It has also explained the strategic level of change in the company and how the company is driven innovative changes. The report has mentioned about the role of entrepreneurs in implementing innovative strategies and how they strive to keep it align ed with company's principles and values. The report on Nestle has given clarity about their specific mission and purpose and their SMART objectives. It has described their range of products and their way of creating shared values. Lastly, corporate level strategies highlighted how Nestle has expanded its business throughout the world and maintained their brand image since 140 years. It highlighted how they used corporate level strategies to expand its business units and diversified its business by operating in different countries and offering world class products. 12.0 Recommendation The report on the strategic management of Nestle was based on different management theories. Though Nestle has excelled in the successful implementation of their strategies, other companies might find it too difficult to bring management theories in to real world practice. Nestle constantly maintained uniqueness and quality of their products to achieve competitive advantage in the food and beverage industry. So the success of any company will depend on the culture of the organization and their execution skills. If any business wants to create a niche in their society, they will have to distinguish their products from others in the market and create a value for their product by advances in technological and other aspects. Nestle is a trendsetter in the food industry and new entrants entering this industry may take lessons from Nestles strategic management activities. This will help them to excel in their business and create their own niche in market full of competitors. Reference Adams, A., Schenker, U. and Loerincik, Y., 2015. Life Cycle Management as a Way to Operationalize the Creating Shared Value Concept in the Food and Beverage Industry: A Case Study. InLife Cycle Management(pp. 341-348). Springer Netherlands. Adams, A., Schenker, U. and Loerincik, Y., 2015. Life Cycle Management as a Way to Operationalize the Creating Shared Value Concept in the Food and Beverage Industry: A Case Study. InLife Cycle Management(pp. 341-348). Springer Netherlands. Amit, R. and Zott, C., 2012. 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Saturday, May 2, 2020

A horse and two goats free essay sample

?In spite of a world where the divergence of cultures is getting less in the course of time, clash of cultures still appear. In R. K. Narayan’s story ‘A Horse and Two Goats’ (1970) two persons from paradoxical cultures meet which leads to a massive communication gap exemplifying the inevitable differences between cultures. The story sets in India in a small town called Kiritam, the Tamil word for crown. The village is described as a â€Å"tiny dot†(p. 184, l. 2) and almost as an isolated dusty desert(p. 185, l. 45). The colours in the village are desert-like and the only thing that colours the surroundings is the warrior’s â€Å"multicoloured sash†(p. 184, l. 20). Although the town therefore seems quite outlying, the inhabitants are convinced that this â€Å"preferably diamond-studded† (p. 184, l. 3) suburb is a part of â€Å"the apex of the world. †(p. 184, l. 5) which according to Muni is due to the statue of the horse and the said warrior: â€Å"The Redeemer will come, in the form of a horse called Kalki, (†¦) and this hors will come to life then, and that is why this is the most sacred village in the whole world†(p. We will write a custom essay sample on A horse and two goats or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page 186, ll. 19-21). The statue becomes a key role in the meeting between the American and Muni. Although it is described as a statue alike numbers of others in India and is covered with plants growing around it, it becomes the center of the queer conversation between Muni and the American. The conversation is clearly influenced by language barriers and furthermore contrasting beliefs, culture, and premises. While Muni is an old Indian man without many possibilities in life the American is an explorer from New York(p. 185, l. 14) compelled by an urge to experience other cultures such as the Indian way of life. Muni seems to be isolated not only from the surrounding world but from the local society too. He is expelled and keeps himself away from the farms because of an accusation of removing the village headman’s pumpkins. Although Muni’s position in society is stuck he dreams about selling his goats to get enough capital to open a small shop(p. 188, ll. 1-4). The dreams and belief in general is Muni’s fixed point in life and devotional tales come in torrents throughout the story. As a contrast to Muni the American is an all-American traveller with the financial wealth to follow his adventurous dreams about travelling and experiencing other cultures. Unfortunately, the â€Å"sunburned and red† American wearing â€Å"khaki-coloured shirt and shorts† (p. 184, ll. 31) lacks the ability to interact with Muni and all in all he fails when trying to be interested and exuberant. Eventually things come down to being an attempt of driving a bargain about the statue. His enthusiasm and interest is displayed throughout the dialogue but at the same time the unsuccessful conversation shows a mutual communicative limitation. The American is consistent and keeps asking Muni about Muni’s knowledge about the America and about the statue although it is obvious that the conversation lacks understanding: â€Å"’I have my station wagon, as you see. (†¦) If you’ll just lend me a hand with it. ’ ‘Do you know Marabatha? Krishna is the eight avatar of Vishnu ’(pp. 186-187, ll. 44-2). The confusion between the two of them is complete which is underlined several times e. g. when Muni at first thinks the American is a police officer (p. 185, ll. 9-12). Muni’s state of subordination related to the said situation is a repeated theme in the story. Almost completely naturally, the old man takes position as the lower standing of the two of them; from the first view of the American Muni thinks he is subordinate to him. This conviction is shared by the American which can be seen when looking at how he talks and acts towards Muni; â€Å"Encouraged by this, the other went on to explain in length, uttering each syllable with care and deliberation, (†¦) every now and then pausing to smile affably. †(p. 185, ll. 32-36). Although the American knows that Muni does not understand what he is saying, he keeps trying and he even more shows sign of being the superior person in the dialogue. His superiors are also shown by the amount of excess when it comes to paying for the statue. The price is a trivial detail for him and he has the financial and mental exorbitance to pay such a high amount of money that â€Å"It’s all for you, or you may share it if you have a partner. † (p. 188, l. 12). The two characters become representatives of two completely different and contrasting cultures with diverging qualities and values. While Muni is an old Indian farmer exemplifying a scheme of things centred on dreams, belief and religion, the American’s appearance expresses the typical American conception focalized on a modern and capitalistic way of life. These contrasts lead to a rather humorous dialogue which clarifies how dissociated cultures can be. Even though the differences between the two involved cultures are clear, it is striking that by the time of the publication of the story India had been independent from the British Empire’s for only 23 years after a long period under British rule and influence. Although there are minor distinctions between Great Britain and the USA it gives food for thought that the clash of cultures can be as evident as in the story of Muni and the American even when the country of India has been influenced by the British Empire. R. K. Narayan’s depiction of the encounter is a down-to-earth humoristic story which pictures an ordinary man as Muni in the process of adapting to the modern world but it also turns up the possibility of questioning if society’s different cultures ever will blend in or if the uproarious gap between civilizations will continue to prevail as a reminder of the charm of diversity.